Journalists’ Code of Ethics (Portugalia)
1. A journalist has a duty to report the facts with accuracy and to interpret them honestly. The facts should be checked by hearing the parties with notable interests in the case.
2. A journalist has to fight censorship and sensationalism and to consider accusations without proof and plagiarism as serious professional misconduct
3. A journalist has to fight against restrictions in the access to information sources, and against attempts to limit the freedom of expression and the right to inform. It is the obligation of a journalist to publicise any violations of those rights.
4. A journalist has to use fair means in obtaining information, pictures or documents, and must avoid abusing anyone’s good faith. The identification of oneself as a journalist is a rule, the breaking of which is permissible only on grounds of an unquestionable public interest.
5. A journalist has to accept responsibility of all his/her work and professional acts, and to correct the information proved to be false or inexact. A journalist has to refuse acts/behaviour that violate his/her conscience.
6. Identification of one’s sources is a essential for a journalist. He/she must not reveal, not even in court, his/her confidential sources except when he/she has been abused by false information. Opinions shall always be kept clearly separate.
7. A journalist has to respect the presumption of innocence until a trial is over. A journalist must not identify, directly or indirectly, the victims of sexual crimes or juvenile criminals nor must he/she cause people humiliation or disturb their sorrow.
8. A journalist must not treat people in a discriminatory way, based on their colour, race, nationality or gender.
9. A journalist has to respect the private lives of citizens except when the public interest demands revelation or when the behaviour of the person in question is contradictory to the values and principles of the public, which he/she professes.
10. A journalist must reject requests, functions, and benefits that could jeopardise his/her independent status and professional integrity. A journalist must not use his professional status in order to get personal benefits.